Middle East / Ancient Mesopotamia

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Type: Culture
Note:
Capital: Uruk
Language:
Script: cuneiform
Religion:
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference:
Notes:
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Carved Jar
NoteEgg shaped stone jar with flat base; carved with two lions attacking bulls, with a scale pattern in 3 rows indicating the ground below; the neck is lost; two holes drilled opposite one another in the shoulder suggest that the jar may have been suspended.Rim and neck broken off.(BM)Late Uruk
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Granite
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  128886
Globular Clay Accountancy Envelope
NoteGlobular Accountancy clay envelope found with a cluster of accounting tokens. Example of Symbolic Technology. From the Tell of the Acropolis in Susa. Atlas 17360
Year
Category: Tool
Location:  Susa
Material:  Clay
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference:  Public Domain
The mask of Warka
NoteThe mask of Warka, from Warka (ancient Uruk), Iraq. Jemdet Nasr period The Iraq Museum, Baghdad. Image Cropped.
Year3000 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Uruk
Material: 
Collection: 
Author:  Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)
Reference:  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Cylinder seal
NoteThe king-priest and his acolyte feeding the sacred herd(wiki)
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Limestone
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
Proto Cuneiform Tablet
NoteProto Cuneiform Tablet from Uruk III. Department of Oriental antiquities, Richelieu. Image cropped.
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material:  Clay
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference:  Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
Limestone statuette of bearded man
NoteLimestone statuette of bearded man (possibly priest-king), Ancient Near East Gallery, Louvre.
Year3300 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference:  Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication
 
Name: Sumer  
Type: Culture
Note:
Capital:
Language: Sumerian
Script: Sumerian Cuneiform
Religion: Sumerian
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference: Short ChronologyShort Chronology
Notes:
No images yet
 
Statue of Ebih-Il
NoteStatue of Ebih-Il, superintendent of Mari
Year2400 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Mari
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
Limestone foundation peg of Uruk King
NoteLimestone foundation peg of Lugal-kisal-si, the King of Uruk and Ur. From the temple of goddess Nammu (also Namma) at Uruk, Iraq. Early Dynastic period, c. 2380 BCE. Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany. Image Cropped.
Year2380 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Uruk
Material:  Limestone
Collection: 
Author:  Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)
Reference:  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Seated figure of Prince Gudea
NoteGudea, Prince of Lagash. Made of Diorite, 46 cm; W. 33 cm; D. 22.50 cm
Year2400 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Lagash
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
male head
NoteAlabaster sculpture of bearded male head
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Mari
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
Stone mace head
NoteSymbolic weapon deposited in a temple on behalf of a king(BM).From Girsu, Early Dynastic III, Telloh
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Stone
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  23287
Cat head mask
NoteCopper alloy mask and bitumen head of a panther or lion cub; associated metal fragments found separately.(BM) Tell Al-Ubaid, Early Dynastic III
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Copper alloy, bitumen
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference:  114313
Male head
NoteGypsum statue of a male figure; only the head is preserved; carved with deeply recessed eye sockets and eyebrows, all originally inlaid, and a shallow recessed area corresponding to the beard which was originally overlaid; the eye sockets still contain extensive traces of bitumen.(BM). Abu Habba (Sippar)
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Sippar
Material:  Gypsum, Bitumen
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference:  91877
Female statue
NoteGypsum statue of woman; carved; eyes were originally inlaid; stands with clasped hands; wears mantle over left shoulder; deep kaunakes fringe at bottom; hair bound with fillet with broad mass each side of face; gathered into braid at the back.
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Gypsum
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  116666
Foundation figure of man
NoteCopper alloy foundation figure of a man with clasped hands, bearded and with very long hair. Legs united in a point(BM). Early Dynastic III, Telloh
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Copper alloy
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  91016
 
Type: Dynasty
Note:
Capital:
Language: Akkadian Semitic
Script: Akkadian Cuneiform
Religion: Akkadian Ishtar
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference: SumerianKing List, Short ChronologySumerianKing List, Short Chronology
Notes:
No images yet
 
Bust of Sargon of Akkad
NoteThis bust might depict Sargons grandson Naram-Sin (wikipedia). Iraqi Museum, Baghdad
Year2270 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Nineveh
Material:  Bronze
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
Mace head
NoteMace head; carved fromf pink marble; perforated, polished and incised with votive inscription of Shar-kali-sharri to Shamash at Sippar.(BM) From Abu Habba
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Marble
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference: 
Green marble mace head
NoteCarved, perforated and polished surfaces; cavity for haft and bevelled edges; elongated ellipse shape; inscribed.(BM)
Year
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference: 
Bronze head of a ruler
Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Akkad
Material:  Bronze
Author: 
Reference:  47.100.80
 
Type: Dynasty
Note:
Capital:
Language: Sumerian
Script: Sumerian Cuneiform
Religion: Sumerian
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference: SumerianKing List (Short Chronology)SumerianKing List (Short Chronology)
Notes: Epic of Gilgamesh (Sumerian), Enmerkar and the L...
No images yet
 
Great Ziggurat of Ur
NoteReconstruction of Ur-Nammus ziggurat, based on the 1939 reconstruction by Woolley (vol. V, fig. 1.4)(wikipedia)
Year2030 BC
Category: Architecture
Location:  Ur
Material: 
Author: 
Reference: 
Cuneiform tablet
NoteThe text describes the construction of a temple by Shulgi, a king of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The white infilling in the signs is modern.(BM) Temple of Dimtabba, Ur
Year
Category: Writing
Location:  Ur
Material:  Steatite
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  118560
Crescent Moon Weight
NoteWeight of ½ mina dedicated by King Shulgi and bearing the emblem of the crescent moon: it was used in the temple of the Moon-God at Ur. Ur III period.
Year
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
Plan of terrain
Note
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
 
Type: Dynasty
Note:
Capital:
Language: Sumerian Akkadian
Script:
Religion: Ashur,Adad,Ishtar
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference: Assyrian King ListAssyrian King List
Notes: Middle Bronze Age MBIIA
No images yet
 
Ceramic tower with figure and tw
NoteCeramic tower with figure and two lions
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Author: 
Reference:  68.155
[1 of 1]
 
Type: Dynasty
Note:
Capital:
Language:
Script:
Religion:
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference:
Notes:
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Cuneiform cylinder
NoteInscripted clay, Sumerian script, cuneiform
Year1950 BC
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
[1 of 1]
 
No images yet
 
Hammurabai stele
Note
Year
Category: Writing
Location:  Ur
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  118551
Frog weight
NoteDiorite or andesite weight weighing 10 minas
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Author: 
Reference:  1988.301
 
Name: Mitanni  
Type: Dynasty
Note:
Capital:
Language: Hurrian (Indo-European)
Script: Cuneiform
Religion:
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference:
Notes:
No images yet
 
 
No images yet
 
Stele of Meli Shipak II
NoteMelišipak kudurru-Land grant to Marduk-apal-iddina(wikipedia)
Year1186 BC
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
Kassite Kuddurru
NoteKuddurru (Boundary stone) found near Baghdad. Held in The Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Year1531 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
 
No images yet
 
Human-headed winged bull
NoteLamassu. Relief from the m wall, k door, of king Sargon IIs palace at Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq)(wikipedia)
Year716 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Author: 
Reference: 
Stele of Ashurbanipal
NoteThe king carrying a basket on his head
Year660 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Babylon
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference: 
Gypsum mace head
NoteWith cuneiform script. Found at Kidmuri
Year
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference: 
Barrel cylinder
NoteFrom Library of Ashurbanipal. Sargon II. Akkadian cuneiform acript. Found: Khorsabad
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material:  Clay
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  22505
lion sculpture fragment
Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Author: 
Reference:  62.269.1
Nimrud Sphynx
Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Author: 
Reference: 
Carved Head
NoteIvory head of a woman: with long hair and wearing a necklace with four rows of beads. She wears a headband or diadem, knotted at the back, consisting of alternating flowers and discs linked together. (BM) Nimrud
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Ivory
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference:  118234
 
No images yet
 
Nabonidus Cylinder
NoteTerracotta cylinder by Nabonidus concerning repairs on the temple of Sîn (wikipedia)
Year556 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Author: 
Reference: 
Etemenanki Ziggurat
NoteThe Babylonian ziggurat (aka tower of Babel) re-built by Nebuchadnezzar II. Temple to the God Marduk.
Year600 BC
Category: Architecture
Location:  Babylon
Material: 
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
Lion head
NoteFrom Hasanlu
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Author: 
Reference: 
 
No images yet
 
Gold lion-griffin plaque
Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Gold
Author: 
Reference:  54.3.2
Gold ram rhyton
NoteNational Museum of Iran
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Ecbatana
Material:  Gold
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
Golden drinking vessel
NoteThe Hyrcanian Golden cup. Dated first half of first millennium. Excavated at Kalardasht in Mazandaran.
Year
Category: Ornament
Location: 
Material:  Gold
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
 
Type: Dynasty
Note: Argead Dynasty
Capital:
Language:
Script:
Religion: Olympian
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference:
Notes:
Rulers:
No images yet
 
 
Type: Empire
Note:
Capital:
Language: Latin
Script: Latin
Religion: Olympian, Christianity
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference:
Notes:
Dynastys:
Periods:
Rulers:
No images yet
 
Temple of Trajan
Noteat Pergamon,Asia Minor. Built by Hadrian
Year
Category: Architecture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Author: 
Reference: 
[1 of 1]
 
Type: Empire
Note: Byzantine
Capital:
Language:
Script:
Religion: Christianity
Agriculture:
Industry:
Reference:
Notes:
No images yet