50,000 BC 10,000 BC 3,000 BC
                             
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Euphrates
Atlantic Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean
Mediterannean Sea
Black Sea
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Persian
Gulf
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Sea
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E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7
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G1 G2 G3 G4 G7
Euphrates
Atlantic Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean
Mediterannean Sea
Black Sea
Caspian Sea
Persian
Gulf
Red
Sea
 
 
 
 
 

Uruk period

Start: 4000 BC
End: 2900 BC
Type: Culture
Script: cuneiform
Capital: Uruk
 

Proto Elamite

Start: 3200 BC
End: 2700 BC
Type: Dynasty
Note: Early Bronze Age
Script: Proto Elamite
 

Sumer

Start: 2900 BC
End: 2124 BC
Type: Culture
Language: Sumerian
Script: Sumerian Cuneiform
Religion: Sumerian
Reference: Short Chronology
 

Akkadian Empire

Start: 2270 BC
End: 2083 BC
Type: Dynasty
Language: Akkadian Semitic
Script: Akkadian Cuneiform
Religion: Akkadian Ishtar
Reference: SumerianKing List, Short Chronology
 

Third Dynasty of Ur

Start: 2055 BC
End: 1940 BC
Type: Dynasty
Language: Sumerian
Script: Sumerian Cuneiform
Religion: Sumerian
Reference: SumerianKing List (Short Chronology)
Notes: Epic of Gilgamesh (Sumerian), Enmerkar and the L...
 

First Empire of Babylon

Start: 1728 BC
End: 1531 BC
Type: Dynasty
Note: Amorite
Language: Amorite (Semitic)
Script: Akkadian Cuneiform
Religion: Semitic
Reference: Short Chronology
Notes: Ancestors of Hammurabi are not part of the First Empire, as Hammurabi defeated other cities such as Larsa and created The First Empire. His ancestors are associated to this box and need to be relocated.
 

Mitanni

Start: 1531 BC
End: 1400 BC
Type: Dynasty
Language: Hurrian (Indo-European)
Script: Cuneiform
 

Median Empire

Start: 700 BC
End: 549 BC
Type: Dynasty
Language: Median
Religion: Mazdaism
Capital: Ecbatana
Reference: Herodotus
 

Alexandrian Empire

Start: 359 BC
End: 323 BC
Type: Dynasty
Note: Argead Dynasty
Religion: Olympian
 

Roman Empire

Start: 27 BC
End: 395 AD
Type: Empire
Language: Latin
Script: Latin
Religion: Olympian, Christianity
Dynastys:
Periods:
Rulers:
 

Eastern (Byzantine) Roman Empire

Start: 306 AD
End: 518 AD
Type: Empire
Note: Byzantine
Religion: Christianity
 

Plantagenets

Start: 1154 AD
End: 1154 AD
Type: Dynasty
 
Artefacts:

Carved Jar

NoteEgg shaped stone jar with flat base; carved with two lions attacking bulls, with a scale pattern in 3 rows indicating the ground below; the neck is lost; two holes drilled opposite one another in the shoulder suggest that the jar may have been suspended.Rim and neck broken off.(BM)Late Uruk
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Granite
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference:  128886
[1 of 0]

Globular Clay Accountancy Envelope

NoteGlobular Accountancy clay envelope found with a cluster of accounting tokens. Example of Symbolic Technology. From the Tell of the Acropolis in Susa. Atlas 17360
Year
Category: Tool
Location:  Susa
Material:  Clay
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  Public Domain
[2 of 0]

The mask of Warka

NoteThe mask of Warka, from Warka (ancient Uruk), Iraq. Jemdet Nasr period The Iraq Museum, Baghdad. Image Cropped.
Year3000 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Uruk
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  CC BY-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]

Cylinder seal

NoteThe king-priest and his acolyte feeding the sacred herd(wiki)
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Limestone
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[4 of 0]

Limestone statuette of bearded man

NoteLimestone statuette of bearded man (possibly priest-king), Ancient Near East Gallery, Louvre.
Year3300 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication
[5 of 0]

Proto Cuneiform Tablet

NoteProto Cuneiform Tablet from Uruk III. Department of Oriental antiquities, Richelieu. Image cropped.
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material:  Clay
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
[6 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Horned figure

NoteThis solid-cast sculpture is one of a pair of nearly identical images of a hero or a demon wearing the upturned boots associated with highland regions, his power enhanced by the mighty horns of the ibex on his head(NYM). more
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Bronze
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  2007.280
[1 of 0]

Kneeling bull figurine

Notemore
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Susa
Material:  Silver
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  66.173
[2 of 0]

Statuette of a Monkey

Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]

Sialk ziggurat

NoteCAD rendering of Sialk ziggurat based on archeological evidence(wikipedia)
Year3000 BC
Category: Architecture
Location:  Tepe Sialk
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[4 of 0]

Anthropomorphic vessel

NoteNorthwestern Iran .Smithsonian museums, Washington DC, USA.
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  S1986.501
[5 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Stone mace head

NoteSymbolic weapon deposited in a temple on behalf of a king(BM).From Girsu, Early Dynastic III, Telloh
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Stone
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference:  23287
[1 of 0]

Statue of Ebih-Il

NoteStatue of Ebih-Il, superintendent of Mari
Year2400 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Mari
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[2 of 0]

Female statue

NoteGypsum statue of woman; carved; eyes were originally inlaid; stands with clasped hands; wears mantle over left shoulder; deep kaunakes fringe at bottom; hair bound with fillet with broad mass each side of face; gathered into braid at the back.
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Gypsum
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference:  116666
[3 of 0]

Figure of male worshiper

NoteFrom Eshnunna
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  40.156
[4 of 0]

Seated figure of Prince Gudea

NoteGudea, Prince of Lagash. Made of Diorite, 46 cm; W. 33 cm; D. 22.50 cm
Year2400 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Lagash
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[5 of 0]

male head

NoteAlabaster sculpture of bearded male head
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Mari
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[6 of 0]

Male head

NoteGypsum statue of a male figure; only the head is preserved; carved with deeply recessed eye sockets and eyebrows, all originally inlaid, and a shallow recessed area corresponding to the beard which was originally overlaid; the eye sockets still contain extensive traces of bitumen.(BM). Abu Habba (Sippar)
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Sippar
Material:  Gypsum, Bitumen
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  91877
[7 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Statue of the Godess Narundi

NoteFrom Awan Dynasty
Year2200 AD
Category: Ornament
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Cuneiform King list of Awan and

NoteDynastic list of the kings of Awan and Simashki. Clay, Sukkalmah (Epartid) dynasty, early 2nd millennium BC. From Susa, Iran
Year1800 AD
Category: Writing
Location:  Susa
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[2 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Bronze head of a ruler

Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Akkad
Material:  Bronze
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  47.100.80
[1 of 0]

Mace head

NoteMace head; carved fromf pink marble; perforated, polished and incised with votive inscription of Shar-kali-sharri to Shamash at Sippar.(BM) From Abu Habba
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Marble
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference: 
[2 of 0]

Green marble mace head

NoteCarved, perforated and polished surfaces; cavity for haft and bevelled edges; elongated ellipse shape; inscribed.(BM)
Year
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cloned
Reference: 
[3 of 0]

Bust of Sargon of Akkad

NoteThis bust might depict Sargons grandson Naram-Sin (wikipedia). Iraqi Museum, Baghdad
Year2270 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Nineveh
Material:  Bronze
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[4 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Great Ziggurat of Ur

NoteReconstruction of Ur-Nammus ziggurat, based on the 1939 reconstruction by Woolley (vol. V, fig. 1.4)(wikipedia)
Year2030 BC
Category: Architecture
Location:  Ur
Material: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Cuneiform tablet

NoteThe text describes the construction of a temple by Shulgi, a king of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The white infilling in the signs is modern.(BM) Temple of Dimtabba, Ur
Year
Category: Writing
Location:  Ur
Material:  Steatite
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note: 
Reference:  118560
[2 of 0]

Plan of terrain

Note
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]

Crescent Moon Weight

NoteWeight of ½ mina dedicated by King Shulgi and bearing the emblem of the crescent moon: it was used in the temple of the Moon-God at Ur. Ur III period.
Year
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[4 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Ceramic tower with figure and tw

NoteCeramic tower with figure and two lions
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  68.155
[1 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Copper foundation figure

Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Larsa
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Cuneiform cylinder

NoteInscripted clay, Sumerian script, cuneiform
Year1950 BC
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[2 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Hammurabai stele

Note
Year
Category: Writing
Location:  Ur
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference:  118551
[1 of 0]

Frog weight

NoteDiorite or andesite weight weighing 10 minas
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  1988.301
[2 of 0]
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:

Stele of Meli Shipak II

NoteMelišipak kudurru-Land grant to Marduk-apal-iddina(wikipedia)
Year1186 BC
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Kassite Kuddurru

NoteKuddurru (Boundary stone) found near Baghdad. Held in The Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Year1531 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[2 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Female figure

NoteWestern Iran, 1350-800 BC
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Ceramic
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  M.75.62.5
[1 of 0]

female figure

NoteNorth-west Iran, Caspian area
Year1000 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Ceramic
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference:  63.44
[2 of 0]

Chogha Zanbil ziggurat

NoteFrom Igehalkid Dynasty
Year1250 AD
Category: Architecture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Tikulti Ninurta Mace Head

NoteMace with the name of Tukulti-Ninurta
Year1243 BC
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  -- select -- [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Inscribed Terracotta Octagon

NoteTerracotta octagon from Assur recounting the campaigns and civil activities of Tiglath-Pileser I Terracotta octagon of the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser I, 1110 BCE, from the Anu-Adad Temple at Assur, Iraq. British Museum. It records the kings military campaigns against the Muski and Kumuh, the conquest of Carchemish as well as his hunting expeditions and building activities in Assur and other cities and the repair to the temple of Anu and Adad.
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material:  Terracotta
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  By Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) - Own work
Image Note:  Image straightened and slightly cropped
Reference:  https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=91394935
[2 of 0]
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:

Gypsum mace head

NoteWith cuneiform script. Found at Kidmuri
Year
Category: Tool
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Carved Head

NoteIvory head of a woman: with long hair and wearing a necklace with four rows of beads. She wears a headband or diadem, knotted at the back, consisting of alternating flowers and discs linked together. (BM) Nimrud
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Ivory
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference:  118234
[2 of 0]

Stele of Ashurbanipal

NoteThe king carrying a basket on his head
Year660 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Babylon
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]

Nimrud Sphynx

Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[4 of 0]

Barrel cylinder

NoteFrom Library of Ashurbanipal. Sargon II. Akkadian cuneiform acript. Found: Khorsabad
Year
Category: Writing
Location: 
Material:  Clay
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference:  22505
[5 of 0]

Human-headed winged bull

NoteLamassu. Relief from the m wall, k door, of king Sargon IIs palace at Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq)(wikipedia)
Year716 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The Louvre
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[6 of 0]
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:

Lion head

NoteFrom Hasanlu
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]

Nabonidus Cylinder

NoteTerracotta cylinder by Nabonidus concerning repairs on the temple of Sîn (wikipedia)
Year556 BC
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection:  The British Museum
Licence:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  British Museum
Image Note:  background cropped
Reference: 
[2 of 0]

Etemenanki Ziggurat

NoteThe Babylonian ziggurat (aka tower of Babel) re-built by Nebuchadnezzar II. Temple to the God Marduk.
Year600 BC
Category: Architecture
Location:  Babylon
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]
 
Artefacts:

Gold lion-griffin plaque

Note
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location: 
Material:  Gold
Licence:  CC0 1.0 [🡭]
Attribution:  New York Met
Image Note: 
Reference:  54.3.2
[1 of 0]

Gold ram rhyton

NoteNational Museum of Iran
Year
Category: Sculpture
Location:  Ecbatana
Material:  Gold
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[2 of 0]

Golden drinking vessel

NoteThe Hyrcanian Golden cup. Dated first half of first millennium. Excavated at Kalardasht in Mazandaran.
Year
Category: Ornament
Location: 
Material:  Gold
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[3 of 0]
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:

Temple of Trajan

Noteat Pergamon,Asia Minor. Built by Hadrian
Year
Category: Architecture
Location: 
Material: 
Collection: 
Licence:  [🡭]
Attribution: 
Image Note: 
Reference: 
[1 of 0]
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts:
 
Artefacts: